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SS-31 Peptide HA (10mg)

$70.00

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Sterile Vial (10 mL)

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Research

SS-31 Peptide Structure

Molecular formula: C32H49N9O5
Molecular weight:
639.8 g/mol
PubChem CID:
11764719
Synonyms
  • Elamipretide
  • 736992-21-5
  • bendavia
  • SS-31 peptide
  • MTP-131
Research Applications:
  • Mitochondrial Health
  • Kidney Disease
  • Cardiac Dysfunction
  • Cancer and Chemotherapy-Induced Cachexia
  • Oxidative Stress and Autophagy
  • Diabetes

SS-31 Research

SS-31 (also called elamipretide) is a peptide that specifically targets mitochondria, offering a diverse array of therapeutic benefits. Clinical evidence indicates that SS-31 demonstrates promise in addressing numerous medical conditions stemming from mitochondrial dysfunction.

SS-31 Mechanisms of Action

SS-31 operates within cells by selectively aggregating inside the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it binds to cardiolipin, a critical component of mitochondrial structure and function. By binding to cardiolipin, SS-31 helps maintain the shape of the mitochondria’s inner folds, known as cristae, which facilitates their energy-producing capabilities [R].

SS-31 also functions as a potent antioxidant, neutralizing damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). This action helps to prevent oxidative stress and maintain mitochondrial function [R].

Further, SS-31 promotes the flow of electrons through the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which boosts ATP production – the cell’s energy currency [R].

Lastly, SS-31 has been shown to prevent cell death by inhibiting the activation of pro-apoptotic proteins and preserving mitochondrial integrity [R].

SS-31 and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

Mitochondria are known as “powerhouses” within cells and play a critical role in energy production while maintaining overall cellular homeostasis. When their internal membrane components become compromised, such as cardiolipin, it can result in a cascade of detrimental health effects. SS-31 is a mitochondria-targeting peptide and has shown promising results in addressing mitochondrial dysfunction across various studies

SS-31 has been found to protect and restore mitochondrial structure, including lengthening mitochondria and restoring cristae membrane structure in kidney disease contexts. It also promotes ATP synthesis, reduces electron leakage, and prevents cardiolipin peroxidation, required for maintaining the inner mitochondrial membrane’s normal structure [R].

In models of mitochondrial cardiomyopathy, SS-31 reversed mitochondrial fragmentation and improved mitochondrial structure and function in patient-derived fibroblasts [R]. SS-31 has also shown promise in improving mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive impairments in mice models of inflammation-induced cognitive decline [R].

SS-31 and Kidney Disease

SS-31 has demonstrated renoprotective effects, showing promise in treating kidney diseases. It has been found to reduce indicators of inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell proliferation in kidney disease models. Specifically, SS-31 treatment has shown to decrease proteinuria, mesangial expansion, and podocyte deficiency, suggesting its protective effects against renal diseases are significant [R].

SS-31 and Cardiac Dysfunction

In models of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction, SS-31 has shown beneficial effects by improving mitochondrial structure and function, increasing energy production, and reducing ROS generation. It has been particularly effective in treating cardiomyopathy in Barth Syndrome (BTHS) patients, improving exercise tolerance, muscle strength, and certain cardiac parameters [R].

SS-31, Cancer and Chemotherapy-Induced Cachexia

SS-31 has been effective in ameliorating the whole body energy status in cancer- and chemotherapy-induced cachexia. It partially relieved body weight loss without interfering with tumor growth and improved muscle energetics. Increasing SS-31 dosage was found to be more effective at intermediate time points before the onset of refractory cachexia [R].

SS-31, Oxidative Stress and Autophagy

SS-31 ameliorates oxidative stress by restoring autophagic flux, which protects aged mice from hind limb ischemia. It reduces oxidative stress and improves skeletal muscle structure and function, suggesting it could be a new treatment strategy for peripheral artery disease (PAD) [R].

SS-31 and Diabetes

SS-31 increases SIRT1 levels and ameliorates inflammation, oxidative stress, and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in type 2 diabetes. It reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases in T2D patients by improving mitochondrial function and inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition [R].

FAQ

What is SS-31 (Elamipretide)?

SS-31, or Elamipretide, is a synthetic peptide that targets mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells. It was discovered by Szeto and Schiller during studies on opioid receptors. The peptide is particularly interesting because it has a unique ability to home in on the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it can exert its protective effects.

Elamipretide is made up of four amino acids, making it a tetrapeptide, and it carries a positive charge which helps it to selectively accumulate in the negatively charged inner mitochondrial membrane. The peptide works by interacting with oxygen radicals to form less reactive species, which helps to prevent oxidative damage. It also binds to cardiolipin, an important lipid in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is thought to be a key part of its mechanism of action.

What are the Beneficial Effects of SS-31?

Studies have demonstrated SS-31 benefits in various models, suggesting that it could be a versatile therapeutic agent for a range of conditions linked to mitochondrial dysfunction:

  • Restores redox homeostasis: It helps maintain the balance between oxidation and reduction within cells.
  • Improves skeletal muscle function: Improves muscle performance and may help with age-related degeneration.
  • Increases exercise tolerance: Allows for better physical endurance, potentially benefiting conditions like Barth Syndrome.
  • Improves cognitive function: Has been shown to improve memory and learning in animal models, suggesting potential for treating age-related cognitive decline.
  • Cardiovascular disease prevention: May reduce the risk of conditions like diastolic dysfunction, a form of heart failure.
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction treatment: Studies have aimed to treat conditions from compromised mitochondrial activity.
  • Kidney disease amelioration: Shows promise in improving kidney function and disease outcomes.
  • Antioxidant properties: Scavenges free radicals, reducing oxidative stress and damage.
  • Anti-inflammatory effects: May reduce inflammation, which is implicated in many chronic diseases.

Where to Buy SS-31?

SS-31 can be purchased online from reputable biotech suppliers such as Limitless Biotech. Limitless offers a wide selection of research-grade peptides for sale online for scientific research and development purposes.

Our extensive range of products undergoes rigorous third-party testing to verify the sequential signatures of all research peptides for sale. With our commitment to quality, most orders are promptly sent out on the same day they are placed, accompanied by our unwavering dedication to providing exceptional customer service.

What Other Peptides Have Been Studied for Mitochondrial Health?

Other research peptides that have shown potential for mitochondrial health include:

Legal Disclaimer

This product is sold as a pure compound for research purposes only and is not meant for use as a dietary supplement. Please refer to our terms and conditions prior to purchase.

Safety Information: Keep this product out of the reach of children. This material has limited research available about it and may result in adverse effects if improperly handled or consumed. This product is not a dietary supplement, but a pure substance, sold as a raw material. We attest exclusively to the quality, purity and description of the materials we provide. This product is for use and handling only by persons with the knowledge and equipment to safely handle this material. You agree to indemnify us for any adverse effects that may arise from improper handling and/or consumption of this product.

The articles and information on products that may be found on this website are provided exclusively for the purposes of providing information and education. These items are not pharmaceuticals or medications, and the Food and Drug Administration has not given permission for the treatment or prevention of any disease, medical condition, or ailment using them.

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