LL-37 Peptide Fact Sheet
|Molecular weight:||4493 g/mol|
LL-37 Antimicrobial Peptide Research
LL-37 and Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity
LL-37 has been shown to have antimicrobial properties against bacteria, enveloped viruses, and fungi. It can kill bacteria through direct antibacterial activities and immunomodulation. LL-37 has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including drug-resistant strains.
LL-37 and Anti-Biofilm Properties
LL-37 has been considered as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics due to its broad-spectrum antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities, as well as immunomodulatory functions. LL-37 has shown inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus strains, which are often responsible for wound infections.
LL-37 has demonstrated strong antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms, with a more than 4 log reduction in colony counts at concentrations as low as 10 μM. Additionally, both LL-37 and its truncated mimetic KE-18 have proven effective in combating biofilms formed by Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus at sub-MIC concentrations.
LL-37 and Wound Healing
The topical use of synthetic and recombinant LL-37 has been demonstrated to boost the development of blood vessels and the re-growth of skin, both of which are crucial in the healing of wounds. LL-37 engages with keratinocytes and fibroblasts to stimulate the closure of wounds.
LL-37 and Immunomodulation
LL-37 can regulate bacterial invasions and control infections and inflammation. At concentrations below 1 μM, LL-37 can enhance neutrophil survival, which is important for the body’s immune response.
Furthermore, LL-37 immunomodulation has been suggested as a potential strategy to reduce severe COVID-19 inflammatory responses and microthrombosis. It has been shown in mouse studies that LL-37 can decrease the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and macrophage pyroptosis in mice with sepsis.
LL-37 and Anti-Inflammatory Activity
- Antagonistic action on pro-inflammatory cytokines: LL-37 has been shown to have an antagonistic action on IFNγ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-12 responses in various cell types.
- Intervening in toll-like receptor signaling: LL-37 can suppress endotoxin-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines by intervening in toll-like receptor signaling.
- Regulating signaling mechanisms and downstream responses: LL-37 can regulate signaling mechanisms and downstream responses induced in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-32.
- Promoting the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines: LL-37 has been found to promote the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1RA).
LL-37 and Cancer Prevention
LL-37 displays an anti-cancer effect in colon cancer, gastric cancer, hematologic malignancy, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. LL-37 exhibits cancer-suppressing properties in gastric cancer cells by effectively inhibiting the proteasome in tumor tissues of the stomach.